Advise what costs are deductible in the current period. Pheasant Co. can further process Product B to produce Product C. Product B is currently selling for $30 per pound and costs $28 per pound to produce.
Indirect labor, factory maintenance, building/equipment, factory rent, supervision of employees, factory insurance, factory utilities, depreciation of factory etc. Equivalent units of production are divided by cost to account for. Resources represent the expenditure of an organization. These are the same costs that are represented in a traditional accounting, Activity Based Costing links these cost to products, customers or services. Cost accounting is a form of managerial accounting that aims to capture a company’s total cost of production by assessing its variable and fixed costs.
The activity-based costing method uses volume-based measures to allocate overhead costs. As shown in Figure 3.3 “Using Department Rates to Allocate SailRite Company’s Overhead”, products going through the Hull Fabrication department are charged $50 in overhead costs for each machine hour used. Products going through the Assembly department are charged $23 in overhead costs for each direct labor hour https://business-accounting.net/ used. Compare and contrast allocating overhead costs using a plantwide rate, department rates, and activity-based costing. Overhead costs, however, are not directly related to production volume, and therefore cannot be traced to units of product in the same way that direct materials and direct labor can. To apply the rates, multiply the actual amount of activity by the rate for that activity.
A2 Identify and assess advantages and disadvantages of activity-based costing. Activities are the cost objects of the second stage of ABC. When activity-based costing is used, the denominator can also be called estimated cost driver activity. Cost accounting is considered to be a part of managerial accounting.
Value Management Achieving operational integration with suppliers creates the opportunity for the value management. Value management is more intense than supplier integration strategy. Value engineering, complexity reduction and supplier involvement at the early stages of new product development are few ways of procurement that can work with suppliers to reduce total costs. Value management extends beyond procurement in the organisation and requires cooperation between numerous participants, both internal and external. ABC can be applied to all overhead costs, not just production overheads. ABC recognises that overhead costs are not all related to production and sales volume. Assign overhead costs to the activities identified in step 1.
Solution(By Examveda Team)
Overhead refers to all Indirect costs. Indirect costs include administration, personnel and security costs. These are those costs which are not directly related to production. Some indirect costs may be overhead.
Allocate overhead costs to products using the departmental overhead rate method. Overhead costs, however, are not directly related to production and cannot be traced to units of product like direct materials and direct labor can. We must use an allocation system to assign overhead costs. Distinguish between the plantwide overhead rate method, the departmental overhead rate method, and the activity-based costing method. P2 Allocate overhead costs to products using the departmental overhead rate method.
The plantwide overhead rate method uses one overhead rate to allocate overhead costs to products and the target of the cost assignment, or cost object, is the unit of product. The plantwide overhead rate is a single overhead rate that a company uses to allocate all of its manufacturing overhead costs to products or cost objects. It is most commonly used in smaller entities with simple cost structures. The single allocation base used is acceptable for allocating all of the overhead costs. The General Products Company is a manufacturing firm with six service departments and five producing departments. Many of the service departments serve each other in addition to providing service to the producing departments.
The step-down, or sequential method, ignores self services, but allows for a partial recognition of reciprocal services. As a result, the step-down method is different from the direct method in that some service department costs are allocated to other service departments. Equations for the service departments are developed to allocate the service department costs in sequence starting with the department that serves the greatest number of other service departments. An alternative approach is to start with the service department that provides the highest percentage of its’ service to other service departments. In determining the sequence of allocations, ties can be broken by using the alternative approach. If there is still a tie, then choose the department with the largest dollar amount of service provided to the other service departments.
Alternatively, the company could use the funds to invest in $180,000 of 7% U.S. Alternatively, the company could use the funds to invest in $180,000 of 6% U.S. What is the difference between traceable costs and common costs? A belief that a company will continue to operate for the foreseeable future.
Activity-based costing method was created in 1980s. A plant wide rate based on either direct labor hours or machine hours would provide the same product costs as separate department rates based on these measurements. The plant wide rates provide inaccurate product costs because the products do not consume the indirect resources in the same proportions in each of the two departments. For a plant wide rate to provide the same results as departmental rates, each product the cost object of the plantwide overhead rate method is: would have to consume the same proportion of the resources in every department. The Cutright Company has a small factory with two service departments and two producing departments. The service departments, Power and Maintenance provide support to the producing departments, Cutting and Assembly, to each other and also use some of their own services. These estimates are used to develop predetermined departmental overhead rates for the Cutting and Assembly departments.
Prevention and appraisal costs are incurred before a good or service is provided to a customer. The purpose of these costs is to reduce the chance the customer is provided a defective good or service. These are the costs of trying to ensure that only good-quality items are produced. Costs resulting from manufacturing defective products or providing services that do not meet customer expectations. Batch-level activities are performed only on each batch or group of units.
A second method, frequently referred to as the traditional two stage allocation approach, recognizes that there are service areas and producing areas in the plant. A conceptual view of the idea is presented in Exhibit 6-1. Usually, only one overhead rate is developed for each producing department, although the basis for these rates may differ between departments.
Examples include designing production processes that minimize defects, providing quality training to employees, and inspecting raw materials before they are placed in production. • Activity-based costing is a two-stage product costing method that first assigns costs to activities and then allocates them to products based on the each product’s consumption of activities. “ABC refers to a methodology that measures the cost and performance of activities, resources and cost objects. It assigns costs to activities based on their consumption of resources and then allocates costs to cost objects based on their required activities”. An activity cost driver is a component of a business process. Activity cost drivers are used in activity-based costing, and they give a more accurate determination of the true cost of business activity by considering the indirect expenses. Let’s assume a company has overhead expenses that total $20 million for the period.
_____ level activities are focused on the whole facility and are not caused by units. Logistics cost Logistics cost usually differently defined by different company. But, in general logistic is defined as the process of the management of goods that across all over the countries and also across the world.
So, if you wanted to determine the indirect costs for a week, you would total up your weekly indirect or overhead costs. You would then take the measurement of what goes into production for the same period. So, if you were to measure the total direct labor cost for the week, the denominator would be the total weekly cost of direct labor for production that week. Finally, you would divide the indirect costs by the allocation measure to achieve how much in overhead costs for every dollar spent on direct labor for the week. From the management decision perspective, joint cost allocations are useless because they are not relevant in decisions concerning the separate products. For example, decisions concerning whether to continue or discontinue producing the joint products depend on their combined value, not the value of any particular product at the split-off point. Therefore, it has been argued that the joint costs should not be allocated at all.
Plantwide Overhead Rate = Total Overhead / Direct Labor Hours. It means the total number of direct labor hours is taken as the denominator, which is divided by the numerator as the total overhead cost of the company.
Allocate the actual costs using the single budgeted rate method. Allocate the budgeted costs using either a single or dual rate method.